So far the biggest single loss to Syria’s heritage has been the total destruction in April 2013 of the 11th c Seljuk minaret of Aleppo’s Umayyad Mosque. It is the equivalent to the complete loss of say, Big Ben, to the skyline of London. Like Big Ben it is not just a building, but part of the psyche of the city, something deep-seated and iconic that is hard to quantify as a loss, not just to the outside world but above all to the inhabitants of Aleppo.
The 50 metre-tall minaret, one of Syria’s most important medieval monuments, had survived earthquakes, fires and previous wars, but has now been reduced to no more than a heap of rubble, beyond reconstruction. Its delicate stonework and elegant tracery made it one of the earliest examples of a true Syrian Islamic style of architecture. Aleppo’s famous souks were burnt, and though the wooden doors and merchandise have all gone up in smoke, the stone vaulted roof for the most part survives.
UNESCO has now put all 6 of Syria’s World Heritage sites on the endangered list, to draw attention to the threat that the ongoing war presents. The two famous Crusader castles of Crac des Chevaliers and Saladin’s castle together constitute one UNESCO site, and have so far suffered damage from shelling, but the damage is reparable. Palmyra’s Temple of Bel has been hit by shells, but that damage is also reparable. The so-called ‘Dead Cities,’ or ‘Forgotten Cities’ as the Syrian Ministry of Tourism preferred to call them, are in the heart of Idlib province and therefore in the thick of a war zone, but since they are entirely built of heavy stone blocks it is hard to damage them. So far the Roman theatre of Bosra in the south has escaped damage, as has the Old City of Damascus, since fighting and shelling has taken place in the capital’s suburbs rather than the old centre, unlike Aleppo and Homs.
Most destroyed of all so far have been other sites, not UNESCO-listed, such as the Roman mosaics displayed in the caravanserais of Apamea and Ma’arat Nu’man, which have been badly looted and pillaged. Lawlessness is a tragic side-effect of war, and it may well be that the worst and most serious damage to Syria’s heritage will come from looting rather than actual war-damage. Unfortunately, scum rises to the top in war.